THE MEMORY GURU OF INDIA-For Aged

Older Adults Can Improve Memory

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Abstract

The brain has a remarkable capacity to change and adapt well into old age. Some researchers believe that individuals may have some control over how well their brains can function in later years. Evidence is mounting that the brain works a lot like a muscle, the harder it is used the more it grows. Exercising the brain through mental challenges and mental stimulation, not only strengthens memory it may also prevent brain diseases, just as physical activity can prevent certain physical disorders and diseases. This lesson defines memory, explores how memory is acquired, how age affects memory, factors that affect memory and ways to improve memory.
UNLIMITED MEMORY BY N L SHRAMAN, THE MEMORY GURU OF INDIA ,EXTEND MEMORY BOOST MEMORY IMPROVE MEMORY DEVELOP MEMORY ENLARGE MEMORY BUILD-UP MEMORY WIDEN MEMORY ,ADVANCE MEMORY EXPAND MEMORY INCREASE MEMORY MULTIPLYMEMORY UTILIZE MEMORY REJUVENATE MEMORY AMPLIFY MEMORY RAISE MENTAL MEMORY ,ENHANCE MENTAL MENTAL MEMORY INTENSIFY MENTAL MEMORY STRENGTHEN MEMORY REDOUBLE MEMORY DOUBLE MEMORY RECOVER MEMORY ADVANCE MENTAL MEMORY
MAKE PERFECT MEMORY BETTER MEMORY UPGRADE MEMORY TRAIN MEMORY MOTIVATE YOUR MENTAL MEMORY ,BOOST LEARNING MEMORIZING QUICK MEMORY RAPID MEMORY FAST MEMORY SPEED MEMORY SUDDEN MEMORY IMMEDIATE MEMORY INSTANT MEMORY ABRUPTLY MEMORIZING MATH MEMORY, ,BECOME CLEVER BRIGHT SMART INTELLECTUAL QUICK ABLE GIFTED INTELLIGENT UNDERSTANDING INCREASE APTITUDE BRAIN POWER .

OLD AGED MEMORY

Specific
Objectives:
                          

After
completion of this lesson, participants will be able to:

1.      
Understand
what memory is

2.      
Understand
how memory is acquired.

3.      
Understand
the stages of the memory process.

4.      
Understand
how age affects memory.

5.      
Identify
physical and psychological effects on memory function.

6.      
Identify
and use memory improvement techniques.

 

Before the
meeting

Specific
Objectives:
                          

After
completion of this lesson, participants will be able to:

1.      
Understand
what memory is

2.      
Understand
how memory is acquired.

3.      
Understand
the stages of the memory process.

4.      
Understand
how age affects memory.

5.      
Identify
physical and psychological effects on memory function.

6.      
Identify
and use memory improvement techniques.

The brain has a
remarkable capacity to change and adapt well into old age.  Some researchers believe that individuals may
have some control over how well their brains can function in later years.  Evidence is mounting that the brain works a
lot like a muscle, the harder it is used the more it grows.  Exercising the brain through mental
challenges and mental stimulation, not only strengthens memory it may also
prevent brain diseases, just as physical activity can prevent certain physical
disorders and diseases.  This lesson
defines memory, explores how memory is acquired, how age affects memory,
factors that affect memory and ways to improve memory.

 

Specific Objectives:       

After completion of this lesson, participants will be able to:
1.    Understand what memory is
2.    Understand how memory is acquired.
3.    Understand the stages of the memory process.
4.    Understand how age affects memory.
5.    Identify physical and psychological effects on memory function.
6.    Identify and use memory improvement techniques.

Before the meeting

•    Obtain the lesson packet and transparencies or disk form the state Specialist
•    Make appropriate number of copies of lesson activities and handouts.
•    Obtain a stack of junk mail, newspapers, recipes or some other collection of file able papers.
•    Obtain manila folders and labels, an expandable file or a file box.
•    Obtain a book, magazine or newspaper

Materials:    Lesson Outline
                Presenter’s script
Participant’s handouts and activities

The Brain has a remarkable capacity to change and adept well into old age, says researchers, David Snowden of Landers brown Center on Aging gat the University of Kentucky and A. Scheibel, Director of UCLA’s Brain Research Institute.  They believe that individuals may have some control over how well their brain can function in later years.

Evidence is mounting that the brain works a lot like a muscle, the harder its used the more it grows.  Exercising the brain through metal challenges and intellectual stimulation, not only strengthens memory, it may also prevent brain diseases, and just as physical activity can prevent certain physical disorders and diseases.  Memory impairment does not seem to be as prominent in more educated and creative people who reach a very advanced age.  If impairment does exist, it is apparently compensated for by employing memory-boosting” techniques.

People of all ages complain of not being able to remember occasionally.  Perhaps expectations are too high because no one can remember everything.  In fact, it’s normal to forget ninety-nine percent of everything that enters the mind.  One must learn to make choices about what to remember, and then put effort into remembering.

What is Memory
System:
•    Acquiring
•    Storing
•    Retrieving

What is Memory?
Getting information into the brain is learning or acquiring.  Retaining learned information in the brain is storage, and recalling the information when needed at a later date is retrieval.  Memory is a system for acquiring, storing and retrieving information.  We might think of memory as being like our personal filing system or a filing system in an office.  We collect information, file it in filing cabinets and later retrieve it.
How is Memory Acquired?
Three Stages of Memory:
Sensory
Short term
Long-Term Memory

Memory has three stages.  The first stage of the memory process is sensory memory.  Information is first perceived through the senses of vision, sound, touch, smell or taste.  Most people have a favorite way to become aware of information.  The “eye minded” person best remembers things observed with the eye, such as printed material or other visual stimuli.  The “eye minded” person recalls actions and incidents from videos or movies, but recalls few spoke words.  (Show: book, magazine, newspaper, etc.)  The “ear minded” person best remembers sound stimuli transmitted to the brain cells by the ears.  The “ear minded” person prefers lectures, the spoken word or anything produced by sound.  This type of person can remember a conversation almost verbatim, but probably cannot give any description of the speaker.  Most musicians are “ear minded”. 

The majority of individuals have a dominant sensory preference, but no one is one hundred percent aligned to any way.

Sights and sounds are the most common preceptors.  These are unavoidable in the environment, but most of what the eyes see or the ears hear vanishes in a fraction of a second because there is no need to remember it.  However, when the mind pays attention to a certain sight or sound, it becomes conscious thought and enters the short-term memory stage.  Short-term memory can hold six or seven bits of information for rice to ten seconds before it is forgotten.  We use short-term memory for many tasks in the course of daily living.  For example, we look up a telephone number, immediately dial and promptly forget the number.  If the call does not go through, most of us will need to look up the number again because the number has left the short-term memory.

Much of the information in the short-term memory is never transferred into the long-term memory for permanent storage.  Long-Term memory is like a huge file cabinet where information is systematically stored until needed.  For example, we pick up the mail.  (Show a stack of a typical day’s mail.)  We sort through and some items will catch our eye (pay attention then it becomes part of our short term memory).  (Select an item from the mail-hold up).  We inspect the item and decide: either we no longer want it-it leaves the short-term memory and is forgotten OR we decide to keep the item.  We put it in a manila folder, label and file in the file cabinet according to some system- by topic, alphabetically, by color, etc.  The human long-term memory capacity is almost limitless.  Successful remembering involves getting information into the long-term memory and subsequently being able to retrieve it when needed, be it a day later or many years later.  Storing takes place automatically without our conscious effort, although the process actually involves several mental tasks.  These tasks include paying attention to something one wants to remember, associating it with something already known, analyzing the information and elaborating on details. 

We can sharpen memory skills by practicing some of the same mental tasks that the brain normally employs to get information into the long-term memory.  Success depends on a positive attitude toward learning and remembering

What Mental tasks are needed for learning?
•    Desire to Learn
•    Decide What to Remember
•    Focus on Information

What mental tasks are necessary in order to remember
Desire to Learn: Before new information can be remembered, it firs must be learned.  A common complaint, particularly of older persons, is not being able to remember names.  However, before getting frustrated, one must ask, “did I ever really learn the name?”  If not, there is little possibility of recalling the name.

Decide what to remember:  It is impossible to remember everything, just like it’s impossible to file all the paper that come into our homes or offices.  We must decide what information is personally important to remember.  If there is no interest there is little chance or incentive to remember.  Extraneous information enters the short-term memory and is quickly forgotten.

Focus on the information:  Successful remembering relies on focusing and concentrating on specific information to reinforce memory.  For example, when trying to remember a person, form a mental picture by taking stalk of the person’s features, mannerisms, clothing or hairstyle.  Then associate the mental picture to the individual’s name and profession.

How Age Affects Memory
Divided Attention
Ability to Learn New Information
Information Retrieval

Myths abound that older adults can’t remember and that all people will become “senile” with age.  In truth, we all forget occasionally, whether old or young.  Most of us will never suffer severe memory loss, but some changes may occur as a result of the aging process.  We can make some adaptations and retain good memory.  Difficulties older people express relate to divided attention, learning new information and retrieval.

Divided Attention:  Older people often have difficulty paying attention to more than one thing at a time.  Competing activities or conversations can interfere with memory.  For example, when you visit your physician, you mat have several questions firmly in mind to ask the doctor.  But then when the physician enters the room and asks questions, you must refocus thoughts to answer the physician’s questions and in the process, you may forget your won questions.  Answering questions while at the same time, trying to remember questions, divides attention.  To compensate for this problem, make a written list of question s to ask the physician.

Ability to learn new information: Another myth we have all heard is “you can’t teach an old dog new tricks”. Research shows that regardless of age, new information can enter the long-term memory with no effort or awareness on our part.  If new material is difficult to understand, it may take actual conscious effort and motivation to learn.  Unless there is actual brain impairment, people can continue to learn and remember throughout life.  However, it takes longer for older person to recall information than it does for younger person.
Why?  As we age, we do a poorer job of organizing information in the long-term memory.  What can we do?  Use memory-training techniques.

Information Retrieval:  retrieval involves both recall and recognition.  Older persons typically have less difficulty with recognition.  We may not be able to recall a particular name, but if we see the name in print, we often recognize it immediately.  Recall is often triggered by cues such as pictures, words or sounds (adaptation)).  Think of related facts as cues about a person, place or thing.  For example, if trying to recall the name of a restaurant, it may be helpful to think about where the restaurant was located or who was in the dinner party or what was the occasion a holiday a birthday etc.

Not all memory problems experienced by older persons are myths.  The aging process does apparently have some degenerating effect on memory function.

Researchers agree that aging does effects some stages of the memory function, but not all.  The sensory stage does not appear to be affected.  Short-term memory is probably not affected.  The long-term memory apparently has unlimited capacity, but may be altered due to aging.  Difficulties in the long-term memory function are primarily with retrieval.  As we age, we may have a decreased ability to store information correctly in the long-term memory.

Some researchers find that even in the over age 85 group, only twenty-three percent reported memory problems.  However, health problems and sensory impairments such as vision and hearing do strongly affect memory function.

Factors That Affect Memory
•    Nutrition Deficiency
•    Drug Interactions
•    Depression
•    Physical Inactivity
•    Low Blood Sugar
•    Stress and Anxiety
•    Inactivity {Physical Illness
•    Dementias

Factors that affect memory
The memory process involves complex mental skills that are affected by a host of physiological and psychological factors.  Physical factors not related to age can severely impact the ability to remember.  Thus, persons of any age who experience persistent memory failure should take action to discover the cause because most memory problems can be treated or cured.  (Refer to quiz, “Factors that Affect Memory”.) 

Nutrition deficiency:  Shortages of essential nutrients such as B vitamins especially riboflavin, carotene, zinc and iron can negatively effect memory.  Foods know to enhance memory include “brain foods” such as meat, eggs and live, both rich in iron and zinc.  However, because these foods are high in cholesterol and fat, many older persons avoid them.

Drug Interactions:  Many drugs commonly used by older adults can impair memory.  Persons most as risk of drug related memory problems are those with low body weight, a history of drug allergies and those with impaired kidney or liver function.  The brains of older persons may be more sensitive to drugs than younger persons, yet recommended dosage are the same for both.  Older people frequently have multiple health problems requiring medications, and certain combinations of drugs may cause adverse reactions.  Drugs likely to interfere with memory are hypertensives, barbiturates, tranquilizers, anti-diarrheal and pain medications that are sleep inducers.  Calcium channel blockers and bets blockers may interfere with concentration and cause memory to fade.  Both prescription and over the counter drugs can cause drowsiness, confusion or may interfere with concentration and ability to remember.

Physical Inactivity:  When memory start to fail, brisk walks or bicycling may boost brainpower.  Exercise has been shown to significantly shorten reaction time and likewise improve recall.  Research shows that elderly persons who experience memory lapses can reduce memory difficulties by participating in a regular exercise program.  Researchers attribute memory improvement among the exercisers to the fact that aerobic activity sharpens memory by increasing blood flow to the brain and helps the brain use oxygen more efficiently.

Low Blood Sugar: Skipping meals or over exercising can cause low blood glucose levels.
Stress and anxiety:  People of all ages can experience memory lapse as a reaction of stress and anxiety.  Memory may be boosted and stress reduced if one can learn technique to make remembering easier.  These might include giving undivided attention to learning new information and concentrating on details of information one wants to remember.

Inactivity:  “Use it or lose it” is often heard in relation to muscles.  Recent research indicates that the same may be true for brain function.  Participation in mental challenging activities may improve memory skills and enhance the ability to remember.  Mental stimulant challenges include such activities as: working crossword puzzles, playing thought provoking games like bridge, jeopardy, chess or trivial pursuit learning computer skills or participating in Elderhostel activities and other adult education classes.
 
Physical illness:  memory loss in older persons is not a part of the normal aging process, but persistent memory loss is a sign that the body is not functioning properly.  Physical illnesses can cause a memory loss.  Common illnesses that may interfere with memory are infections, anemia, diabetes, dehydration, liver aliments, circulatory problems, thyroid conditions, kidney problems, strokes, emphysema, heart disease and Parkinson’s disease. 

Dementia:  Degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease can result in permanent and progressive decline in memory, thinking and behavior.  This type of memory loss generally has a slow onset.  Victims experience difficulty remembering recent events or may have difficulty performing familiar tasks.  Declines in memory function can be the result of many factors or combinations of factors.  Thus, persons who have difficulty remembering, particularly if the onset is sudden, should seek a thorough medical evaluation.  Often times, persons with memory loss feel upset and anxious, but fear seeking medical attention.  (Refer to handout, “What is the difference Between AAMI and Alzheimer’s Disease”)

How to improve memory
Internal Techniques
•    Association
•    Visualization
•    Observation

Ways to Improve memory
A growing body of research indicates that the more educated the individual, the less likelihood one will experience memory loss.  Researchers say that the majority of older persons that experience a decline in memory can significantly regain the ability to remember through memory training.  The first task in improving memory is deciding what is important to remember.  No one can remember everything, so one must set proprieties.  Memory improvement strategies are numerous so try several to find the ones most appropriate for you personally.    

Internal Process Techniques
Association:  A powerful memory booster is association of new information with information that is already known and making a mental link.  For example, you have used several different techniques for freezing peaches.  Now you read about a new way, one that you have not heard of before (Sensory perception).  You make a mental note; you would like to try this method.  (Pay attention to the information.) = (Short term memory). You file (store) this information in your long-term memory in the file folder labeled freezing peaches.  You will be able to retrieve this information when you need it because you have associated the new information with information that you already knew very well.  Information absorbed by association becomes so thoroughly know that most people have instant recall.

Visualization:  Create a mental picture or image in the mid.  For example, to help remember the location of your car in the parking lot, make a mental picture of the car’s location.  Visualize the car parked next to the yellow light pole; that is directly in line with the customer loading zone of the a particular store. 

Observation:  Pay attention to details.  It can be very difficult to remember information without taking stock of details.  For example: the leaves of wood vine and poison ivy look almost exactly alike.  However, the two can be distinguished very easily if one pays attention to details and observes that the wood vine has five leaves in a cluster and poison ivy has only three leaf clusters.  The difference can further be reinforce by observing that the word ivy has three letters and that poison ivy has three leaves to a cluster.  Or another example:  You want to remember how to get to a particular restaurant.  You observe that on Main Street at the second stoplight, there is a bank on the left and a “Wag a Bag” on the right.  The restaurant is located mid-block on the right and has a green sign.

In the future when looking for the restaurant, you will know that when you get to the second stop light and see the  “Wag a Bag” store that you are very close to the restaurant and you will need to look for the green sign of the restaurant.

External Process Techniques
•    Written instructions
•    Organization
•    Change of Environment
•    Sound Triggers
•    Group first letters of words

External Process Techniques
It isn’t necessary to remember all the information that is needed and used in daily activities.  Instead rely on external reminders and prompts, such as alarm clocks, appointment calendars, shipping lists, etc.

Written Instructions:  Writing is one of the most useful memory joggers.  Use a “to do, list” to keep from forgetting tasks or events.

Organization:  Develop a systematic way to keep track of needed items.  Designate a specific place to keep often used items such as keys, important papers and bills.

Change of Environment:  An easy way to remember non-routine tasks is to change something in the environment to jog the memory.  For example, place clothes to take to the cleaners in front of the door.  The change of location becomes a cue to jog the memory.

Sound Trigger:  Use portable alarm clocks, timers and answering machines to jog the memory.  An alarm clock or timer can be set as a reminder to keep an appointment, make a telephone call, take medication, etc.  If away from home and you want to remember to do a task as soon as you return home, leave a message on your home answering service.

Group First Letter of Words:  Sometimes it’s necessary to remember a list of items.  There are several techniques to make this task easier.  For example, one way to remember the five Great lakes is to take the first letter of each of the lake names and arrange them to form the word HOMES (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior).
A second way is to use the first letter of each word and form a sentence that is easy to remember.   For example, take a grocery list, and using the first letter of each work make a sentence that will be easy to remember. For the list including bread, lettuce, pears, corn, milk, beef roast and chicken, and example of a sentence could be “Laura baked many cherry pies by candlelight”.
A third way is to use body parts as reminders.  Suppose that you do not have a pencil and paper handy, yet you need to remember a list of grocery items.  Foods can be associated with different body parts.  For example, the list included bread, milk, lettuce, chicken, pears, beef roast, and corn.  Make associations of body parts with food items such as lettuce (head), pears (eyes), bread (stomach), corn (foot), milk (breast), beef roast (rump), chicken (thighs).
 
The following steps are recommended for using memory improvement techniques.
1.    Choose something specific to remember.
2.    Review possible strategies and select one
3.    Try the strategy
4.    If the selected strategy does not work, try another one.
5.    If some information is particularly difficult to remember, ask the question. Does it really matter?

Developing interests or hobbies and staying involved in activities that keep the mind and body active are among the best ways that older people can remain sharp and keep their mental abilities.  Careful attention to physical fitness including a balanced diet and prudent use of medications may also go a long way to help older persons keep a healthy state of mind.  Some physical and mental changes occur with age, even in healthy persons, but much pain and suffering can be avoided if older persons, their families and their doctors realize memory loss is not a part of the normal aging process.

         
Make
appropriate number of copies of lesson activities and handouts.

         
Obtain
a stack of junk mail, newspapers, recipes or some other collection of file able
papers.

         
Obtain
manila folders and labels, an expandable file or a file box.

         
Obtain
a book, magazine or newspaper

 

Materials:            Lesson Outline

                                Presenter’s
script

Participant’s handouts and activities


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Brain has a
remarkable capacity to change and adept well into old age, says researchers,
David Snowden of Landers brown Center on Aging gat the University of Kentucky
and A. Scheibel, Director of UCLA’s Brain Research Institute.  They believe that individuals may have some
control over how well their brain can function in later years.

 

Evidence is
mounting that the brain works a lot like a muscle, the harder its used the more
it grows.  Exercising the brain through
metal challenges and intellectual stimulation, not only strengthens memory, it
may also prevent brain diseases, and just as physical activity can prevent
certain physical disorders and diseases. 
Memory impairment does not seem to be as prominent in more educated and
creative people who reach a very advanced age. 
If impairment does exist, it is apparently compensated for by employing
memory-boosting” techniques.

 

People of all
ages complain of not being able to remember occasionally.  Perhaps expectations are too high because no
one can remember everything.  In fact,
it’s normal to forget ninety-nine percent of everything that enters the
mind.  One must learn to make choices
about what to remember, and then put effort into remembering.

 

 

It isn’t necessary to remember all the information that is
needed and used in daily activities. 
Instead rely on external reminders and prompts, such as alarm clocks,
appointment calendars, shipping lists, etc.

 

Written Instructions:  Writing is one of the
most useful memory joggers.  Use a “to
do, list” to keep from forgetting tasks or events.

 

 

Organization:  Develop a systematic way
to keep track of needed items.  Designate
a specific place to keep often used items such as keys, important papers and
bills.

 

Change of Environment:  An easy way to remember non-routine
tasks is to change something in the environment to jog the memory.  For example, place clothes to take to the
cleaners in front of the door.  The
change of location becomes a cue to jog the memory.

 

Sound Trigger:  Use portable alarm
clocks, timers and answering machines to jog the memory.  An alarm clock or timer can be set as a
reminder to keep an appointment, make a telephone call, take medication,
etc.  If away from home and you want to
remember to do a task as soon as you return home, leave a message on your home
answering service.

 

Group First Letter of Words:  Sometimes it’s
necessary to remember a list of items. 
There are several techniques to make this task easier.  For example, one way to remember the five
Great lakes is to take the first letter of each of the lake names and arrange
them to form the word HOMES (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior).

A second way is to use the first letter of each word and
form a sentence that is easy to remember.  
For example, take a grocery list, and using the first letter of each
work make a sentence that will be easy to remember. For the list including
bread, lettuce, pears, corn, milk, beef roast and chicken, and example of a
sentence could be “Laura baked many cherry pies by candlelight”.

A third way is to use body parts as reminders.  Suppose that you do not have a pencil and
paper handy, yet you need to remember a list of grocery items.  Foods can be associated with different body
parts.  For example, the list included
bread, milk, lettuce, chicken, pears, beef roast, and corn.  Make associations of body parts with food
items such as lettuce (head), pears (eyes), bread (stomach), corn (foot), milk
(breast), beef roast (rump), chicken (thighs).

 

The following steps are recommended for using memory improvement
techniques.

1.      
Choose
something specific to remember.

2.      
Review
possible strategies and select one

3.      
Try
the strategy

4.      
If
the selected strategy does not work, try another one.

5.      
If
some information is particularly difficult to remember, ask the question. Does
it really matter?

 

Developing
interests or hobbies and staying involved in activities that keep the mind and
body active are among the best ways that older people can remain sharp and keep
their mental abilities.  Careful
attention to physical fitness including a balanced diet and prudent use of
medications may also go a long way to help older persons keep a healthy state
of mind.  Some physical and mental
changes occur with age, even in healthy persons, but much pain and suffering
can be avoided if older persons, their families and their doctors realize
memory loss is not a part of the normal aging process.

 

 

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