THE MEMORY GURU OF INDIA-LEARNING

Memory and Learning

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Abstract

Summary

• Memory and understanding do not work in the same way as time progresses. Your brain can understand information but not necessarily recall it

• Recall gets progressively worse unless breaks are taken. Your brain needs a brief rest at regular intervals – 50 minutes studying with 5 minutes break works well

• Our memory works by building links. We remember things which are associated in our mind by: repetition, sense, colour, rhythm, rhyme, or anything which is unique, absurd or unusual

• To keep recall constant we need to review material regularly

• It is important to be aware of your learning preferences and to be an active learner

• Multi-sensory learning is the best as all parts of the brain are engaged

• We remember things best if we organise them into categories or patterns

• We remember things which interest us most

• It is difficult to remember things we do not understand

• We remember things better if we already know something about the subject.
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Memory and Learning

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Contents

 

Memory
and Learning
. 3

Two
hemispheres of the brain
. 5

Reviewing. 6

Review
Cycle
. 7

How
to make the most of your memory
. 8

Summary. 10

References
and further reading
. 11


Memory and Learning

How effective is your studying?

It is important to take control of your own
learning processes.

 

We are said to remember on average:

20% of what we read

30% of what we hear

40% or what we see

50% of what we say

60% of what we do

BUT

90% of what we See, Hear, Say and Do

 

Visual
learners find it easier to take in information through drawings, pictures,
charts and films.

 

If your visual memory is good, try the
following;

 

·        
Create large posters or mind
maps and put them in your room so you will see them constantly

·        
Make good use of charts and
diagrams when taking notes

·        
Make mental images of
information or create pictures to help you remember facts

·        
Use index cards and key points
in revision cards

·        
Create flow charts or diagrams
of key information. Put them aside and see if you can reproduce them from
memory. If you cannot, go back to the original and compare the two. Highlight
the parts you got wrong, to focus on next time.

·        
Use Mind Maps

·        
Try Inspirations software – a visual package which is available on most
university computers

Verbal
learners find it easier to take in information through the written word.

 

Auditory
learners find it easier to take in information through listening to the spoken
word.

 

If your auditory memory is good, try the
following:

 

·        
Tape information or notes and
play them back to yourself

·        
Read your work aloud or
summarise notes orally

·        
Plan your essays orally onto
tape

·        
At the end of a learning
session ask yourself questions either aloud or on a tape and answer your own
questions

·        
Try explaining a difficult idea
or subject to someone else (preferably someone who doe not have a knowledge of
the subject).

 

Kinaesthetic
learners like to try out or copy demonstrations.

 

If your learning preference is kinaesthetic
try the following:

 

·        
Walk around as much as possible
while you are learning information

·        
Practice as far as possible the
theories/knowledge you bare learning

·        
Rewrite information in
different ways in order to remember

 

Although it is important to be aware of how
you learn best, it is even more important to be aware that:

 

·        
Multi-sensory learning is the
most effective type of learning

·        
Multi-sensory = Most likely to remember.

 

This is because all the senses are engaged,
and consequently, all parts of the brain. So it is important to:

 

          See
it      
          Read and visualise material

         

          Hear
it
        Make up questions and answer
them aloud

 

          Do
it
          Write
out answers to the questions and circle the key

                             Points

 


Two hemispheres of the
brain

 

Tony Buzan and others have shown that your
brain has two distinct halves which deal with different areas of knowledge.

 

LEFT
HEMISPHERE                                 RIGHT
HEMISPHERE

 

Words and Speech                                                 Rhythm

Logic                                                                     Spatial
awareness

Reasoning                                                              Imagination

Numbers                                                               Daydreaming

Sequence                                                               Colour
and patterns

Analysis                                                                 Dimension

Lists                                                                     Patterns

Names                                                                   The
whole picture

Calculation                                                             Emotion

 

It is
important to involve the whole brain as far as possible when you learn.
In all learning situations such as note-taking, revising for
examinations and so on you should try to combine colour, pictures, words, music/rhythm as much as possible.

 

 


Reviewing

 

·        
80% of what you learn today
will be forgotten within 24 hours if you do not make a special effort to
remember it

 

·        
It is very important that you
regularly review the knowledge that you are acquiring and do not leave
everything to a cramming session just before the examinations

 

·        
Review is a positive attempt to
hook the facts into your visual, auditory and kinaesthetic memory. This is why
multi-sensory learning is so important

 

·        
Review does not just mean
repetition. It means working on the material in different ways. Mind Maps are
particularly useful as they present information in a visual form, whereas much
of educational learning is linear

 

·        
You could summarise material
aloud or set yourself a series of questions about what you have learned and
answer them orally.

 

·        
The first review should ideally
take place within 24 hours. Try reviewing your notes at the end of the day,
allowing 10 minutes for every hour of new material. You could transfer your
notes into a more coherent form, add information, highlight relevant parts,
etc.

 

·        
Review your notes at the end of
the week, allowing 5 minutes for each hour of new information received that
week. Then review the same material for 2 – 4 minutes at the end of the month

 


Review Cycle

 

           

To
get the maximum from your memory, review regularly

 

10
minutes after learning session

 

1 day
later

 

1
week later

 

1
month later

 

6
months later

 

Each
review session should only take about 5 minutes

 

 

 

These
graphs show how quickly you forget if you do not review your learning, and the
pattern of memory with review.

 

 

 

How to make the most of
your memory

 

What you already know affects how well you
take in new information

 

You need to be focused and alert in order
for your memory to work

 

If you do not concentrate fully when taking
in information (for example in a lecture or when reading) you cannot hope to
remember properly

 

You might need to actively review
information regularly

 

Association
is very important.
Whenever possible try to see if
you can associate or link new information in your brain with something you
already know. Before you start learning a new subject, take a few minutes to
jot down or mentally recall anything you know about the subject, however slight
it might be

 

If you need to remember 20 points and you
can find a way of linking them together, it will be easier for your brain to
remember them. If, however, you try to remember 20 unrelated points, then your
memory will need to work 20 times

 

Another memory method is to look for a
logical connection between two things. For example, if you can never remember
the spelling for beech and beach, just link the ee spelling
in beech
with tree. Similarly, link beach and sea

 

The above method can be used to remember
numbers. For example if your bank pin number is 2069 and you were born on 20th
of April in 1969, you could link these two facts.

 

·        
Break down any learning tasks into manageable chunks. Do not try to tackle a whole book or even a chapter at a time. If
you break up material into smaller sections you are creating lots of beginnings
and endings, which is useful for recall. Recall is the highest at the beginning
and the ending of a learning session. We tend to remember considerably less of
what we learn in the middle of learning sessions

 

·        
Reduce the material you want to learn
into a different format such as pyramid chart, flow chart, mind map or a set on
index revision cards

·        
Make a list or set of cards of the key
words which are most useful in summarising the key concepts and main ideas

 

·        
Take regular breaks. This is vital to
keep recall high. Recall gets progressively worse unless breaks are taken. Your
brain needs a rest at regular intervals

 

·        
Incorporate colour, patterns and sound as
your brain remembers what is unusual and it likes colour, rhythm and rhyme

 

·        
Use mnemonics for material that is
particularly difficult to remember such as dates, names and some formulae. Either
take the first letter of each word you want to remember and construct a
sentence or make up a word.

 

Example:  The vertebrae of
the skeleton can be remembered by the following sentence:

 

          Agile Annie Catches The Long Snake

          Atlas, Axis, Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral

 

 

 


Summary

 

·        
Memory and understanding do not
work in the same way as time progresses. Your brain can understand information but not necessarily recall it

 

·        
Recall gets progressively worse unless breaks are taken. Your brain needs a brief rest at regular intervals – 50 minutes
studying with 5 minutes break works well

 

·        
Our memory works by building
links. We remember things which are associated in our mind by: repetition,
sense, colour, rhythm, rhyme, or anything which is unique, absurd or unusual

 

·        
To keep recall constant we need
to review material regularly

 

·        
It is important to be aware of
your learning preferences and to be an active learner

 

·        
Multi-sensory learning is the
best as all parts of the brain are engaged

 

·        
We remember things best if we
organise them into categories or patterns

 

·        
We remember things which
interest us most

 

·        
It is difficult to remember
things we do not understand

 

·        
We remember things better if we
already know something about the subject


 

 

 

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